Thursday, January 11, 2018

Crisis services billing - Medicaid Guid


CRISIS SERVICES

Crisis Interventions Crisis Interventions are unscheduled activities conducted for the purpose of resolving a crisis situation requiring immediate attention. Activities include crisis response, crisis line, assessment, referral, and direct therapy.

The standard for whether or not a crisis exists is a "prudent layperson" standard. That means that a prudent layperson would be able to determine from the beneficiary’s symptoms that crisis services are necessary. Crisis means a situation in which an individual is experiencing the signs and symtoms of a serious behavioral health disorder, and one of the following applies:

* The individual can reasonably be expected within the near future to physically injure himself or another individual, either intentionally or unintentionally;

* The individual is unable to provide himself food, clothing, or shelter, or to attend to basic physical activities such as eating, toileting, bathing, grooming, dressing, or ambulating, and this inability may lead in the near future to harm to the individual or to another individual; or

* The individual’s judgment is so impaired that he is unable to understand the need for treatment and, in the opinion of the behavioral health professional, his continued behavior as a result of the behavioral health disorder can reasonably be expected in the near future to result in physical harm to the individual or to another individual.

If the beneficiary developed a crisis plan, the plan is followed with permission from the beneficiary.

Crisis Residential Services

Crisis residential services are intended to provide a short-term alternative to inpatient psychiatric services for beneficiaries experiencing an acute psychiatric crisis when clinically indicated. Services may be used to avert an inpatient psychiatric admission or to shorten the length of an inpatient stay. Additionally, these services are designed for a subset of beneficiaries who meet the ASAM Criteria for Level 3.7 Medically Monitored Intensive Inpatient Services admission criteria or are at risk of admission, but who can be appropriately served in settings less intensive than a hospital. This service is also designed for beneficiaries who are intoxicated and at risk of admission to an acute setting or another level of care but can be appropriately served in this less intensive setting. The goal of crisis residential services is to facilitate reduction in the intensity of those factors that lead to crisis residential admission through a personcentered/ individualized and recovery-oriented approach.



* Population: Services are designed for a subset of beneficiaries who meet psychiatric inpatient/substance use disorder residential admission criteria or are at risk of admission to a high level of care setting but who can be appropriately served in a less intensive setting.

* Covered Services: Services must be designed to resolve the immediate crisis and improve the functioning level of the beneficiary to allow them to return to less intensive community living as soon as possible. Covered crisis residential services include:

* Psychiatric supervision (for programs providing mental health services and/or co-occurring disorders);

* Therapeutic support services;

* Medication management/stabilization and education;

* Behavioral services;

* Milieu therapy; and

* Nursing/medical services (on-site nursing services are required for those beneficiaries who are in the detoxification process, and who require medications to manage the current crisis).

Beneficiaries who are admitted to crisis residential services must be offered the opportunity to explore and learn more about crises, mental health disorders, substance use disorders, identity, values, choices and choice-making, recovery and recovery planning. Recovery and recovery planning is inclusive of all aspects of life, including relationships, where to live, training, employment, daily activities, and physical well-being.

The program must include on-site nursing services (Registered Nurse [RN] or Licensed Practical Nurse [LPN] under appropriate supervision).

* For settings of 6 beds or fewer: on-site nursing must be provided at least one hour per day, per resident, seven days per week, with 24-hour availability on-call.

* For 7-16 beds: on-site nursing must be provided eight hours per day, seven days per week, with 24-hour availability on-call.

* Provider Criteria: The PIHP must seek and maintain MDHHS approval for the crisis residential program in order to use Healthy Michigan Plan funds for program services. Healthy Michigan Plan crisis residential programs may choose to provide a program for serious mental illness, intellectual/developmental disabilities, substance use disorders or a combined program. A program offering services for substance use disorders must be licensed for residential substance use disorder treatment services per the Administrative Rules for Substance Use Disorder Programs and appropriately accredited through one of the organizations identified in the Substance Abuse Services subsection of the Mental Health/Substance Abuse Chapter. Established residential programs that purport to offer this service for individuals with substance use disorders will be required to seek re-approval of the program by MDHHS when appropriate licensing and accreditation has been obtained. Programs currently approved to provide services for mental health and/or intellectual/developmental disabilities by MDHHS through the delivery of Medicaid State Plan, Habilitation Supports Waiver (HSW), or additional/B3 services do not require re-approval.

* Qualified Staff: Treatment services must be clinically supervised by a psychiatrist. A psychiatrist need not be present when services are delivered but must be available by telephone at all times. The psychiatrist must provide psychiatric evaluation or assessments at the crisis residential home. Medication reviews performed at the crisis residential home must be performed by a physician, physician assistant or a nurse practitioner under the clinical supervision of the psychiatrist. The covered crisis residential services must be supervised onsite eight hours a day, Monday through Friday (and on call at all other times). Supervision must be by a behavioral health professional (Mental Health Professional [MHP] and/or a Substance Abuse Treatment Specialist [SATS] depending on the scope of services being provided) possessing at least a master’s
degree in human services and one year of experience providing behavioral health services to individuals with serious mental illness and/or substance use disorders; or a bachelor’s degree in human services and at least two years of experience providing behavioral health services to individuals with serious mental illness and/or substance use disorders.


Treatment activities may be carried out by paraprofessional staff who have at least one year of satisfactory work experience providing behavioral health services to individuals with mental illness and/or substance use disorders, or who have successfully completed a PIHP/ MDHHS-approved training program for working with individuals with mental illness and/or substance use disorders.

Peer support specialists and/or recovery coaches may be part of the multidisciplinary team and can facilitate some of the activities based on their scope of practice, such as facilitating peer lead support groups, assisting in transitioning beneficiaries to less intensive services, and by mentoring beneficiaries towards recovery.

* Location of Services: Services must be provided to beneficiaries in licensed crisis residential foster care, group home settings not exceeding 16 beds in size, or in a licensed substance use disorder residential treatment program (when providing services for substance use disorders). Homes/settings must have appropriate licensure from the State and must be approved by MDHHS to provide specialized crisis residential services. Services must not be provided in a hospital
or other institutional setting.

 Admission Criteria: Crisis residential services may be provided to beneficiaries who are assessed by, and admitted through, the authority of the local PIHP.

Beneficiaries must meet psychiatric inpatient admission or residential substance use disorder level of care criteria but have symptoms and risk levels that permit them to be treated in such alternative settings. Services are designed for beneficiaries with mental health or substance use disorders, beneficiaries with a co-occurring mental health and substance use disorder, or beneficiaries with intellectual/developmental disabilities. For beneficiaries with a concomitant disorder with an intellectual/developmental disability, the primary reason for service must be mental illness or substance use disorder.

* Duration of Services: Services may be provided for a period up to 14 calendar days per crisis residential episode. Services may be extended and regularly monitored, if justified by clinical need, as determined by the interdisciplinary team. For substance use disorders, beneficiaries should be moved to another ASAM Level of Care within 14 days; however, services may be extended if justified by clinical need, medical necessity, and as determined by the interdisciplinary team.

* Individual Plan of Service/Treatment Plan: Services must be delivered according to an Individual Plan of Service (IPOS) or appropriate treatment plan process for substance use disorder beneficiaries (refer to the Treatment Planning subsection of the Mental Health/Substance Abuse Chapter) based on an assessment of immediate need. The IPOS/treatment plan must be developed within 48 hours of admission and signed by the beneficiary (if possible), the guardian, the psychiatrist, and any other professionals involved in the treatment planning process as determined by the needs of the beneficiary. If the beneficiary has an assigned case manager, the case manager must be involved in the treatment as soon as possible, and must also be involved in follow-up services.


The IPOS/treatment plan must contain:

* Clearly stated goals and measurable objectives, derived from the assessment of immediate need, stated in terms of specific observable changes in behavior, skills, attitudes, or circumstances, structured to resolve the crisis;


* Identification of the activities designed to assist the beneficiary to attain his goals and objectives; and

* Discharge plans, the need for aftercare/follow-up services, and the role of, and identification of, the case manager.

If the length of stay in the crisis residential program exceeds 14 days, an interdisciplinary team must develop a subsequent plan based on comprehensive assessments. The team is comprised of the beneficiary, the guardian, the psychiatrist,the case manager and other professionals whose disciplines are relevant to the needs  of the beneficiary, including the individual Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) team, outpatient services provider, when applicable. If the beneficiary did not have a case manager prior to initiation of the intensive/crisis residential service and the crisis episode exceeds 14 days, a case manager must be assigned and involved in treatment and follow-up care. (The case manager may be assigned prior to the 14 days
according to need.)



Intensive/Crisis Stabilization Services

Intensive/crisis stabilization services are structured treatment and support activities provided by a multidisciplinary team and designed to provide a short-term alternative to inpatient psychiatric services and/or substance use disorder residential treatment in a community setting. Services may be used to avert a psychiatric admission, residential substance use disorder admission, or to shorten the length of an inpatient or substance use disorder residential stay when clinically indicated.
Crisis situation means a situation in which an individual is experiencing the signs and symptoms of a serious behavioral health disorder, and one of the following applies:


* The individual can reasonably be expected within the near future to physically injure himself or another individual, either intentionally or unintentionally;

* The individual is unable to provide himself food, clothing, or shelter, or to attend to basic physical activities such as eating, toileting, bathing, grooming, dressing, or ambulating, and this inability may lead in the near future to harm to the individual or to another individual; or

* The individual’s judgment is so impaired that he is unable to understand the need for treatment and, in the opinion of the behavioral health professional, his continued behavior as a result of the behavioral health disorder can reasonably
be expected in the near future to result in physical harm to the individual or to another individual.


* Approval: The PIHP must seek and maintain MDHHS approval for the intensive/crisis stabilization services in order to use Healthy Michigan Plan funds for program services. A program that will be offering services for substance use disorders must be licensed for outpatient substance use disorder treatment services per the Administrative Rules for Substance Use Disorder Programs and appropriately accredited through one of the organizations identified in the Substance Abuse Services subsection of the Mental Health/Substance Abuse Chapter. Established crisis stabilization service programs that purport to offer this service for individuals with substance use disorders will be required to seek reapproval of the program by MDHHS when appropriate licensing and accreditation has been obtained. Programs currently approved to provide services for mental health and/or intellectual/developmental disabilities by MDHHS through the delivery of Medicaid State Plan, Habilitation Supports Waiver (HSW), or additional/B3 services do not require re-approval.


* Population: These services are for beneficiaries who have been assessed to meet criteria for psychiatric hospital admissions and/or substance use disorder residential/inpatient treatment but who, with intense interventions, can be stabilized and served in their usual community environments. These services may also be provided to beneficiaries leaving inpatient psychiatric services and/or substance use disorder residential/inpatient treatment if such services will result
in a shortened stay. Beneficiaries must have a diagnosis of mental illness, substance use disorder or mental illness with a co-occurring substance use disorder, or intellectual/developmental disability.

* Services: Intensive/crisis stabilization services are intensive treatment interventions delivered by an intensive/crisis stabilization treatment team under the supervision of a psychiatrist. Component services include:

* Intensive individual counseling/psychotherapy;

* Assessments (rendered by the treatment team);

* Family therapy;

* Psychiatric supervision; and

* Therapeutic support services by trained paraprofessionals.

* Qualified Staff: Intensive/crisis stabilization services must be provided by a treatment team of behavioral health professionals under the supervision of a psychiatrist. The psychiatrist need not provide on-site supervision at all times, but must be available by telephone at all times. The treatment team providing intensive/crisis stabilization services must be Mental Health Professionals and/or Substance Abuse Treatment Specialists. Nursing services/consultation must be available.

The treatment team may be assisted by trained paraprofessionals under appropriate supervision. Trained paraprofessionals must have at least one year of satisfactory work experience providing services to individuals with behavioral health disorders. Activities of trained paraprofessionals include assistance with therapeutic support services. In addition, the team may include one or more peer support specialists and/or recovery coaches.

* Location of Services: Intensive/crisis stabilization services may be provided where necessary to alleviate the crisis situation, and to permit the beneficiary to remain in, or return more quickly to, his usual community environment.

Intensive/crisis stabilization services must not be provided exclusively or predominantly at residential programs.

Exceptions: Intensive/crisis stabilization services may not be provided in:

* Inpatient settings;

* Jails or other settings where the beneficiary has been adjudicated; or

* Crisis residential settings.

* Individual Plan of Service/Treatment Plan: Intensive/crisis stabilization services may be provided initially to alleviate an immediate behavioral health crisis. However, following resolution of the immediate situation (and within no more than 48 hours), an intensive/crisis stabilization services IPOS or appropriate treatment plan process for substance use disorder beneficiaries (refer to the Treatment Planning subsection of the Mental Health/Substance Abuse Chapter) must be developed. The intensive/crisis stabilization IPOS/treatment plan must be developed through a person-centered planning process in consultation with the psychiatrist. Other professionals may also be involved if required by the needs of the beneficiary. The case manager (if the beneficiary receives case management services) must be involved in the treatment and follow-up services.

The IPOS/treatment plan must contain:

* Clearly stated goals and measurable objectives, derived from the assessment of immediate need, and stated in terms of specific observable changes in behavior, skills, attitudes, or circumstances structured to resolve the crisis.

* Identification of the services and activities designed to resolve the crisis and attain the beneficiary's goals and objectives.

* Plans for follow-up services (including other behavioral health services where indicated) after the crisis has been resolved. The role of the case manager must be identified, where applicable.

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